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RevCEDOUA A. 6, nº 12 (2003) >
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|Título: ||Perequação, expropriações e avaliações|
|Autores: ||Oliveira, Fernanda Paula|
Cardoso, António Magalhães
|Palavras-chave: ||Expropriações por utilidade pública|
Instrumentos de planeamento territorial
Código das Expropriações de 1999
|local de publicacao: ||Local:Coimbra|
|Resumo: ||Res:As expropriações por utilidade pública, como instrumentos jurídicos fundamentais para a concretização de importantes projectos que se projectam no território, aparecem à luz do Código das Expropriações de 1999 pouco articuladas com
os restantes instrumentos de intervenção, designadamente com os instrumentos de planeamento territorial. Visa o presente artigo alertar para alguns dos aspectos mais importan-tes dessa desarticulação e para as dificuldades daí decorren-tes. Especial relevo será dado à necessidade de articulação do regime das expropriações por utilidade pública com as questões da execução dos instrumentos de gestão territorial e daquela (em especial da avaliação para efeitos de indemnização) com as questões da perequação de benefícios e encargos decorrentes dos planos.|
Res:At the present moment, the national territory finds itself practically covered by plans, especially by municipal directive plans (PDM), which classify and qualify land. This fact has immediate consequences in matters relative to expropriations; on the one hand, future expropriations must be adequate with the foreseen use of the land in country planning instruments; on the other hand, expropriations are but one of the various instruments legally foreseen to execute the plans, and they must be articulated with the foreseen legal regime. Furthermore, the present country planning instruments are obliged — by the equality principle that is constitutionally consecrated, by the Base Law on Urban and Country Planning Policy (LBPOTU) and by the Legal Regime relative to Country Management Instruments (RJIGT) — to solve the questions of equal distribution of the benefits and duties that stem from them, although the legislator now foresees that the instruments of country planning may also have an expropriative effect that originates a duty to compensate. In the situations, in which expropriations occur, it is necessary to evaluate the lands for reasons of compensation; these facts are not, entirely, irrelevant. However, the Expropriations Code of 1999 did not consider this problem and there is a lack of articulation with the RJIGT in many areas. The first example of this consideration refers to the land classification foreseen in both legal diplomas. Although it is true those expropriations are executed on lands that are covered by plans which classify them as urban and rural, the truth is that the Expropriations Code (CE) has a somewhat different land classification which does not coincide with the former. Beyond this aspect, there is a necessity to clarify the possibility of expropriation that is tied to the needs of plan execution (and suggested in the first number of article n.º 4 of the CE), follow the mechanisms of equal distribution in the norms of the CE relative to the calculation of the compensation and of rendering the typologies of the lands equal to those foreseen in the RJIGT (for example, making the lands that are affected to the urban ecological structure equivalent to lands that are classified as green zones). In addition, the redundant character of the obligation to apply the CE (even with the necessary adaptations) in the diverse situations of evaluation referred in the RJIGT in matters relative to the systems and instruments of plan execution. It is sufficient to remember that some successful Portuguese experiences elaborated complete and justified initial and liquid valorisation models. These were much more appropriate than the ones that result from the application of the rules in the CE. Having considered this and many other aspects, one concludes in favour of a greater articulation between the diverse legal instruments. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to consider the recourse to the CE in order to develop the execution of the plans and to conceive operations of equal distribution (expropriating the necessary lands and evaluating the parcels in accordance to the CE); the existence of apparently unconstitutional norms in the present CE, doing away with the amount of the compensation from the integral compensation that should compensate those who have been expropriated for the damages suffered; the problems stemming from the application of those norms of the CE to the diverse situations that result from the processes of execution and the equal distribution of compensation which result in less favourable solutions; the necessity to adapt the rules of the CE that are applicable to the determination of compensation in the case of expropriation to the effects of equal distribution, bearing in mind that the plans elaborated in light of the RJIGT which bind private individuals must contain mechanisms of equal distribution and the existence in the CE and in the RJIGT of excessive rules and confusion in their application.
|Aparece nas colecções:||RevCEDOUA A. 6, nº 12 (2003)|
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